Detailed Information On COVID-19

Emerging in China in the latter part of 2019, COVID-19 is essentially a new coronavirus disease that has spread to at least six continents in 209 countries. Its official name is Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 and it is from a family of viruses that is capable of causing respiratory illnesses in human beings. These range between the common cold and more severe illnesses like MERS the (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and SARS (the severe acute respiratory syndrome).

The outbreak of the pathogen has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Believed to have been passed on to humans from an animal source that is yet to be determined, it primarily spreads through respiratory droplets like those produced when an infected individual sneezes or coughs.

From Where Did COVID-19 Come?

Coronaviruses circulate among animals and some are known to infect human beings as well. Bats are considered natural hosts of these viruses yet there are a number of other animal species that are identified as also acting as sources. For example, SARS is transmitted to human beings via civet cats and MERS is transmitted via camels.

Symptoms Of Coronavirus

In Wuhan, a study was conducted on 138 infected patients and published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. It found that fatigue, fever and dry cough were the most common symptoms. In addition, one-third of the study participants reported difficulty breathing and muscle pain, while approximately 10 percent experienced atypical symptoms, including nausea and diarrhea.

All the infected patients developed pneumonia, even though the majority of cases seemed to be mild. Approximately one-third of the patients developed severe breathing complications subsequently, which require intensive care treatment. The patients who became critically ill were older and were afflicted with other underlying health conditions such as hypertension and diabetes.

Overall, symptoms vary in severity from being asymptomatic (experiencing no symptoms at all) to having sore throat, cough, fever, fatigue, general weakness and muscular pain. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, severe pneumonia, septic shock and sepsis occur in the most severe cases, with all potentially resulting in death. Reports have shown that clinical deterioration can rapidly follow, typically during week 2 of the disease.

More recently, it has been reported that anosmia, which is basically the loss of the sense of smell and also, in some cases could involve deficiency in the sense of taste, is a symptom of the coronavirus. Already, there is evidence from Italy, China and South Korea that infected patients have developed hyposmia/anosmia and in some cases, there is an absence of other symptoms.

Levels of Severity

The coronavirus have three levels of severity — mild, severe and critical. There are mild cases that resemble the common cold and come with some respiratory symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, fever and it could also cause pneumonia. Additionally, pneumonia can have different levels of severity ranging all the way to failure of multi organs and death. However, in the majority of cases, the symptoms have stayed mild. There are studies which have found that roughly 82 percent of coronavirus cases are mild, 15 percent are severe and 3 percent are classified as critical.

Mode of Transmission and How it Spreads

Animals are understood as being the original source of transmitting the virus; however, the spread of the coronavirus is now from individual to individual, which is referred to as human-to-human transmission. An adequate amount of epidemiological information is not yet available to determine just how easily this virus spreads between individuals. Nonetheless, currently it is estimated that, one infected individual will end up infecting between two and three others, on average.

Apparently, the virus appears to be transmitted primarily via small respiratory droplets via coughing, sneezing or when individuals interact with each other for a particular period in close proximity (typically less than three feet). Individuals can inhale the droplets or they can fall on surfaces and others could come into contact with them and become infected after touching their eyes, mouth or nose. COVID-19 has the capacity to survive on various surfaces like cardboard and copper for several hours and on surfaces like stainless steel and plastic for up to a few days. However, there is a decrease in volume of viable virus over time and they do not always have enough numbers to result in infection.

It is known that the virus can be transferred when individuals who are infected cough, sneeze or display other symptoms. In addition, there is evidence that suggests that transmission could take place from an individual who is infected just two days prior to displaying symptoms. It has been found that transmission from asymptomatic individuals can be deadly to individuals who are elderly and those with pre-existing medical conditions.

Who Can be Infected?

The new coronavirus can infect individuals of all ages. Older individuals and individuals with pre-existing health conditions like heart disease, diabetes and asthma seem to be more susceptible to becoming extremely ill with COVID-19. WHO advises individuals of all ages to take steps to safeguard themselves against the virus by following good hand hygiene practices as well as good respiratory hygiene.

How to Prevent Infection

Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent becoming infected by the coronavirus disease, COVID-19. However, you can protect yourself and your family and assist in preventing the transmission of the virus to others by:

• Practicing and encouraging regular washing of hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. An alcohol-based hand sanitizer can also be used to sanitize your hands between washes or if soap and water is not readily available.
• When you cough or sneeze, always remember to do so in your flexed elbow or cover your mouth and nose with a disposable tissue. After which, you should immediately dispose of it in a garbage bin and thoroughly wash your hands.
• If your hands are not clean, resist the urge to touch your mouth, eyes and ears.
• For individuals who are unwell, stay a distance of 3 to 6 feet away from them to lower the risk of becoming infected.
• If you are not an essential worker, stay home and practice social distancing from members of the public and do not venture out unless it is absolutely necessary. In addition, it is very important that you self-isolate from members of your household if you are feeling unwell or displaying symptoms of the disease.

Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that all individuals wear cloth masks in public places where maintaining a 6-foot distance from others is difficult. This will assist in slowing the spread from asymptomatic individuals or those who are unaware that they have been infected. The mask should be worn while practicing social distancing.

Death Toll and Confirmed Cases

Based on compiled data from Johns Hopkins University, the death toll from COVID-19 has past 78,110. There are also more than 1.3 million confirmed cases globally(2020-04-05). So far, more than 286,000 have recovered. Individuals infected with the coronavirus typically develop signs and symptoms. These include fever and mild respiratory symptoms, on an average of between 5 and 6 days following infection (this means an incubation period between 5 and 6 days and it ranges between 1 to 14 days). However, a number of individuals who are infected with COVID-19 remain asymptomatic; this means that they do not display any symptoms of the disease. The disease grows in the respiratory tract and could result in a variety of symptoms. The majority of infected individuals have mild disease and end up recovering.


Strength Training For Fighters

Imagine going up against a vicious opponent in an octagon who is set on destroying you as quick as they can. Now imagine you have to go at maximum effort against this opponent for 5 rounds of 5 minutes each, if you both last that long.

In order to survive in the octagon, fighters today need a combination of muscular endurance, strength, speed and agility no matter what weight class they compete in.

Fighter’s Goals

Each fighter needs to train for a demanding physical contest, but they may need to move up or down a weight class to compete.

So how do you increase strength without gaining weight (unless that’s your goal.)

How do you gain weight without becoming slow and losing explosiveness? Or lose weight without losing strength?

The answer varies depending on the fighter.

Strength training for fighters should incorporate the following:

1. Improving power-to-weight ratio

2. Power training for speed

3. Heavy lifts with low reps.

Improving your power-to-weight ratio.

Heavier athletes need greater power to move their weight effectively. Athletes trying to drop a weight class need to maintain power while losing that weight.

Training Theory

Believe it or not, strength programs for fighters has a lot in common with power lifting training. Two of the three elements in a power lifting program are useful for fight training.

1. The ‘power’ part of power lifting training is really speed training. Explosiveness. While this can be accomplished with plyometrics, the explosiveness needed to move greater and greater weight starts with speed training.

2. Low rep, heavy lifting. These sets are done for only 1-3 repetitions and not to failure.

Powerlifters also do a maxing out day, which is something fighters don’t need to do. The goal is to get stronger and still be able to train the next day.

If a fighter needs to gain weight for a fight, they can incorporate higher repetition sets along with dietary modifications to maximize their gains.

For example, a strength training for fighters program may have the athlete doing deadlifts and squats one day a week, for 5 sets of 3 repetitions each.

These sets would be done with a weight that is 80-90% of their maximum lift. After a 2-day rest they may follow this up with a lighter weight, speed day. Reps in these sets are done with a weight that is only 40-50% of their one-rep maximum.

When to Start Training for Strength

Physiological changes do not take place overnight. When combined with a full-time training program that includes grappling and striking practice, strength gains may be slower to come than if they were the only goal.

However, a trainee can see strength increases on a weekly basis with the right diet and recovery program. The ideal program will have the athlete gaining enough strength to rise to their opponent, peaking just in time for the fight.

How soon an athlete needs to start incorporating this training depends on:

-How strong do they need to be?
-Where is their strength level now?
-How much time before the fight?

This could be from several weeks to several months. A good trainer and coach will be able to develop a program that cycles in sufficient strength training in time for a fight, but not so close to the fight that their nervous system is exhausted.


How often strength training is incorporated into a fighter’s training program also depends on the athlete. A team has to prioritize the fighter’s weaknesses.

So if the athlete is strong enough but their grappling skills aren’t a match for their opponent, their strength-training program will be focused on maintaining strength while they spend more time on the mats.

If an athlete is a great striker and grappler, but is facing a much stronger opponent, the training program should reflect the need to increase strength, and possibly gain muscle.

Strength Training Exercises

Is strength training for fighters different than strength training for powerlifters, or sprinters, or football players? Yes, and no.

Certain exercises are great strength builders across a wide spectrum of sports, including combat sports.

These exercises are the classics, things like:

-Overhead Presses
-Bench Press
-Pullups/Weighted Pullups
-Dips/Weighted Dips

When translated into linear motion, these movements are useful to many athletes. Additional exercises that include an element of explosiveness include:

  • Barbell Clean&Jerk
  • Barbell or Kettlebell Snatch
  • Power Cleans
  • Prowler Sprints
  • Kettlebell Swings
  • Tire Flipping
  • Medicine Ball Exercises
  • Hang Cleans

Multiple Planes of Movement

While fighters need to be incorporating some of these movements into their training, there are a variety of multi-plane movements that are especially beneficial to their sport.

In the octagon, all types of movement patterns take place, and the body can be put under tension from any direction.

It’s important to have a training program that incorporates the use of bands, kettlebells, and multi-directional body weight strength training in order to prepare the athlete for their battle in the ring.

Training for strength complements martial arts training, helps prevent injuries during training, and gives the athlete a greater fitness base to last through a potentially grueling match.